On July 20, 1990 President Bush signed into law the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) as a vital section of legislation. This new law requires changes in both business and public services. Some of these changes are material and cost money; others involve adopting new outlooks toward people with disabilities.
Three major issues contribute to a fabulous opportunity for people with disabilities to become eternally deep-rooted in the work force:
First, the likely possibility that the lessening labor pool of employment-ready personnel may create worker deficiencies during this decade. This will cause employers to efficiently recruit and retain qualified employees. Since Americans with disabilities correspond to the largest single chunk of potential employees, shrewd employers will court this underemployed community.
Second, a new surge of young Americans educated under the Handicapped Children Act of 1975 is graduating. This new generation will have improved educations and high potential for themselves after graduating from high school and college. Thus, they will be more malleable to competitive jobs than preceding generations of the disabled.
Third, many graduating students who do not have disabilities have gone to school with disabled classmates. Therefore, with the publicity, much of the discrimination in the work force will naturally dissolve.
The 1990's offers less job safety for many, but expands and supplements job possibilities for the disabled. You may be new to the work force or in the middle of a career modification. In either case this decade will afford you a new job market as economic, political, and demographic demands close down old opportunities and open up new ones.
When to unveil your disability The decision to disclose your disability and when to do so may be the single most significant consideration in your job search. This is a personal decision that has to be made for each job lead you follow and will be based on the character of your disability and your understanding of the potential employer.
When reviewing this issue, ask yourself this question: If I reveal my disability, will I be hired? If the answer is no, then don't do it. If, however, you feel the employer will hire you and make a just and reasonable accommodation, then you may wish to think how and when to inform the employer of your disability.
Even though the law states you do not have to divulge your disability to a potential employer unless it relates to the conclusion of necessary job functions, you may want to be open on this subject. If you are initially frank, you may set the stage for enhanced respect by your employer. This exposé may be viewed as a sign of character, force, and confidence. How this fragile communication is made can be vital to your obtaining the job.
At Referral If you are one of the fortunate job seekers to get a foot in the employment door through a recommendation, you don't have to worry about disclosing your disability. The employer probably knows about your exact limitation. It is likely the individual who made the referral has bridged that gap before your interview. This is ideal because during the interview both you and the employer will likely be more at ease. But most people with disabilities do not have this benefit. The imposing question of when and how to tell employers can be very distressing. In a fair-minded and reasonable world, you would be able to divulge your disability openly in your resume, cover letter and throughout the interview. However, we all know there is discrimination in the job market. Employers have biases and prejudices they might not even be conscious of. These may be carried into the job selection process.
On Your Resume Often your disability is reflected in your employment history, schooling, and life understanding. Rather than trying to hide your disability, phrase it with positive words. Highlight your adaptability, flexibility, and aptitude in the light of your disability. Use words that showcase your abilities. Keep in mind that you may lose a few job opportunities or offers if you run into the predictable employers who are biased. But those employers are unlikely to be impartial after you are hired anyway. If you decide to disclose your disability in your resume, do not place it in the opening paragraph. Intertwine the information into your resume in a delicate manner.
In Your Cover Letter Sometimes it is to your advantage to talk about your disability openly in a cover correspondence. For example, some employers specifically recruit the disabled to meet affirmative action goals or because they have a state or federal contract that requires employing disabled. Once again, as in the resume, do not create the cover letter with details about your disability. Follow the standard format for cover letters (see Cover Letters that Sell) and at the end of the second paragraph, describe your strengths and your limitations. Then continue describing how you will carry out the essential functions of the job.
On the Application Form Standard employment applications may be necessary. Some organizations require all job applicants to complete a standardized document. Most of the forms have a segment for disability disclosure but this is not obligatory. You do not have to disclose your disability. You have the option but are not required by law to talk about any aspect of your limitation. The major disadvantage of disclosing at this point in the progression is that you may not have room on the form to explain accommodations or how you triumph over your limitations. This could be a difficulty. Large corporations often have a standardized discovery form that can be completed with the general submission. This is also elective for you. Think through the advantages of unveiling at this time and what you know about the particular corporation. Some corporations or employers are very helpful of disabled employees and this would be an suitable time to divulge.
During the Interview Shock is a frequent reaction if a noticeably disabled person walks into an interview meeting and hasn't adequately prepared the potential employer. This shock factor can lead to distrust and nervousness on the part of the interviewer. If your disability is highly evident (for example, being wheelchair bound, blind, walking with a cane), you may wish to prepare the employer in advance. A intelligent time to inform the interview of a visible disability could be the time when the interviewer personally requests to set-up an appointment. Do not disclose to a secretary or office assistant and expect the message is diplomatically relayed.
If, however, your disability is not obviously visible (for example, a learning disability or wearing a hearing aid), you do not have to prepare the interviewer.
After You've Been Offered the Job Many people favor to disclose after they have been offered the job on their talents, skills, and educational credentials. This may be temporarily distressful to the prospective employer but by that time you are hired and prepared to begin work. You have passed the opposition. If your disclosure changes the hiring decision and the employer withdraws the offer, you are eligible to take legal action. The ADA does not allow this kind of prejudice. The only drawback to waiting is the employer may be discontented about not knowing ahead of time and trust may be hampered.
After Beginning the Job This strategy lets you excel on the job before having to disclose a limitation. If your impairment or restriction does not influence the initial work, this may be a solid choice. This option gives you time to make friends with co-workers, staff, and supervisors to reinforce your employment arrangement.
Never If you believe your disability will not effect the fundamental functions of your job, you may not want to tell your supervisor or boss. Smart job applicants know telling the employer can have tremendous effect on the success of the job pursuit. Keep in mind this is not the time to instruct an employer. You can do that once you have worked on the job for an extent of time; or you may with never to do so. It is your choice.
Final Issues Timing is vital. If you catch the employer off-guard and alarm him/her your chances of employment may be lessened. This possibility could be diminished if you ask yourself quite a few questions to prepare yourself and your prospective employer:
Am I at ease and certain that I can do the job tasks with my disability?
Can I practice my answers to the meeting questions?
If I disclose my disability at this time and in this way, will I get hired?
Let's look at these in more detail. Are you comfortable and confident that you can do the job tasks with your disability? If you have the skills, schooling, or background that the job requires, you may feel convinced about your ability to do the job. But, are you happy explaining the details of your disability? Try role playing the situation. Have a trusted pal or family member make believe to be an interviewer with a listing of questions. Then make clear to the interviewer your particular disability, and how the disability will effect your occupation. Then list the benefits of hiring you. If you are uneasy, try it again. With several rehearsals, your comfort level will go up.
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